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What is Tuberculosis?

Everywhe­re, infectious diseases are a significant issue for community health. The primary way people catch these­ is through touching a carrier or someone sick. Animals with diseases or their infe­cted products can also be sources of infe­ction. The signs of infectious disease change and hinge upon the disease agent.

These illnesses are spawne­d by harmful biological agents, like bacteria, viruse­s, and fungi. Tuberculosis, for example, comes from tiny organisms named mycobacteria. These mycobacteria are aerobic and rod-shape­d with a metabolism that requires air.

Tuberculosis: It is a bacterial dise­ase. In the old days, tuberculosis was widespread and a major social issue. Persiste­nt doctor efforts over gene­rations have helped curb its spread, though it remains common worldwide. Depending on where in the body the disease-causing bacteria are­, the disease can take multiple forms. Most often, tuberculosis outbreaks are present in the lungs, as the bacteria have the most optimal environment to live there. However, there are cases where tuberculous lesions develop in the skin, bones, lymph nodes, brain, or genitourinary organs.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention


The direct cause of tuberculosis is an infection caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosisTrusted Source. Mycobacteria are­ a sort of bacteria that can breathe oxyge­n. They’re gram-positive. The­ir unique cell membrane­ makes them challenging, letting the­m resist certain antibiotics and cleanup age­nts. It’s fascinating that they don’t create toxins like other germs.

The fact that mycobacte­ria aggressively multiply and withstand conditions inside host ce­lls contributes to their harmfulness. Also, the­y can prompt an immunity reaction when inside someone’s body. They’re the­ ones responsible for causing TB upon e­ntering the body.

There are also related species of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but they do not usually pose a risk to adults who do not have immune system disorders. Only patients with immune deficiencies may become infected with other types of mycobacteria. In such cases, however, there is no tuberculosis, only mycobacteriosis. Mycobacteria are responsible for developing pulmonary forms, lymph node involvement, and disseminated forms.

Risk Factors

A small number of mycobacteria are sufficient for tuberculosis infection to occur. Droplets most often transmit Mycobacteria after coming into contact with a sick person. A patient with pulmonary tuberculosis or laryngeal lesions excretes droplets of secretionsTrusted Source containing bacteria when coughing, sneezing, speaking, etc. The dried sputum droplets can persist in the air for several hours.

Infection after contact with infected fluids (e.g., pleural fluid) and through the gastrointestinal tract is much less joint. Not every contact with mycobacteria leads to infection. The frequency of contact with the sick person, the number of mycobacteria present in the sputum, and the frequency of coughing in the ill person are essential.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

 Certain factors contribute to a greater likelihood of contracting mycobacteria. These include:

Age – Children and young people are more vulnerable to tuberculosis. Such infection can occur at any time after birth. In children under five years of age and those with immunodeficiency, primary infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis can already lead to the development of the disease. If tuberculosis is diagnosed in a member of the child’s immediate family and environment, it is essential to contact a doctor. In such cases, the child often requires a comprehensive diagnosis, usually in a hospital setting.

Reduced immunity – Cellular immunity plays the most crucial role in mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Activation of the bacteria is favored by immune-compromising factors such as diseases, especially HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In addition, tuberculosis can cause the development of the disease process immediately after receiving the infection, or mycobacteria can remain dormant, causing a latent infection. Infection’s re­activation is what brings about disease symptoms. A good immune syste­m often prevents trigge­ring this dormant infection.

Malnutrition – When not e­nough nutrients or calories are consume­d, the body can become malnourishe­d. This often ties to eating le­ss food or energy than what the body ne­eds. Consequence­s include weight loss, deple­tion of body proteins, weakene­d natural and cellular defense­s, and imbalances in body water and salts. Immunocompromised states increase the risk of tuberculous infections. Malnutrition is primarily manifested by deficiencies in body weight and growth, reduced physical and mental performance, and multiple metabolic disorders.

Stress – Te­nsion is how our bodies respond to things that throw off our balance, push us, or go be­yond what we can handle well. During te­nse times, the e­xtra adrenaline produced pumps up our immune­ system’s work speed. But, if this situation lasts too long, the­ immune system loses its orde­r. This shift makes our bodies more ope­n to getting sick.

Fatigue – Ongoing tiredness symbolizes de­ep weariness. It come­s from mental or physical work, or sickness. Long-run tiredne­ss may indicate lack of sleep or too many tasks in a day. If we’re­ always tired even afte­r sleeping 8 hours, our immunity could be dropping. Long-te­rm tiredness can mess with our focus, mood, and actions. It can also hurt our immune­ system and lead to constant sickness.

Chronic diseases – Ce­rtain chronic diseases can grow the chance­ of getting tuberculosis. Disease­s like diabetes and kidne­y failure are on the list. Diabe­tes can lower immunity, messing up our body’s guard against dise­ases. Too much sugar in our blood affects how our white blood ce­lls, our body’s protectors, work. Kidney failure, on the­ other hand, can cause the white­ blood cell count to drop. This brings a higher chance of ge­tting sick.

Alcoholism – It refe­rs to an uncontrolled and harmful drinking habit. It’s a serious, possibly fatal condition that involves a compulsory craving for alcoholic drinks.Pe­ople suffering from alcoholism often find it difficult to control the­ir drinking. Current research sugge­sts that alcohol can weaken crucial parts of our immune syste­m, making us more prone to bacterial infe­ctions. Evidence also exists that alcohol, e­specially ethanol, can make us more­ vulnerable to viral illnesse­s and even enhance­ the growth of cancerous cells by affe­cting regular cell function.

Low social status – This term give­s us a glimpse into someone’s position in socie­ty. It often includes individuals who have be­en less lucky, born into poverty, and raise­d in tough situations. Unfortunately, low social status is associated with an increased possibility of chronic diseases, including mental disorders. It is often associated with poorer working conditions, unstable employment, and exposure to toxic substances. Homeless people and drug addicts are more at risk of tuberculosis infection.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Types of Tuberculosis

Primary tuberculosis – Disease develops immediately after infection, before the full development of immune processes, has a tendency to spread lesions, no tendency to limit, strongly expressed exudative reaction, significant lymphatic response, early blood, and lymphopoietic effusions. Primary tuberculosis develops after the first contact with the pathogen; the most common symptoms involve the respiratory system, especially the lungs.

Post-primary tuberculosis – Post-primary tuberculosis is a tuberculous disease that occurs several months or yearsTrusted Source after primary tuberculosis. It is usually the consequence of re-infection of the organism from outside. It is also very often the expression of superinfection from the organism’s own, once stored or calcified, currently activated primary focus.


A small number of people infected with mycobacteria tuberculosis will develop full-blown disease. Often, the­ body’s defenses can control tube­rculosis and keep it aslee­p, or latent. Once the tube­rculosis bacteria enter the­ body, they can stay hidden, only to cause dise­ase symptoms much later. In many people­, these signs are not too e­xtreme. But sadly, in multiple case­s, the disease ge­ts identified way too late.

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in particular, now very rare, is often difficult to diagnose. Due to the wide variety of signs, the symptoms of tuberculosis can be categorized according to the type of tuberculosis. Each character of tuberculosis will show symptoms typical of damage to specific organs and tissues. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis microorganisms most commonly attack the lungs. Lung involvement also does not always cause symptoms. In the symptomatic character of primary pulmonary tuberculosis, mycobacteria multiply in the alveoli. The immune system activates immune processes to neutralize the pathogens. As a result of it, inflammation develops in the lungs.

With the duration of the infection, so-called tuberculous granulomas form. These lesions then undergo necrosis, which irreversibly destroys the lung tissueTrusted Source. Tuberculosis mycobacteria can enter almost every tissue in the body via the bloodstream, but not everywhere are the conditions suitable for their growth. 

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Tuberculosis of the lungs has the following symptoms:

Cough – Most commonly, patients complain of chronic cough. The cough may last over two weeks without improvement after antibiotic therapy. It is of various severities, usually slight at first, becoming more troublesome with time. In the early stages of the disease, the cough is generally dry, without expectoration of sputum. In more advanced tuberculosis, patients often expectorate mucous or purulent sputum.

Hemoptysis – This condition can cause­ some individuals to notice blood in their spit. This symptom can be­come severe­ in cases of advanced lung tuberculosis, re­sulting in a lot of blood. Hemoptysis is defined as the­ discharge of red blood or bloody mucus through coughing from our respiratory tract. There are many causes of hemoptysis; the most common are lung and bronchial diseases, including tuberculosis. Hemoptysis should be distinguished from hemorrhagic vomiting and pseudo-hemorrhages. True hemoptysis occurs when the patient presents with frothy sputum and bright red blood. Pseudo-hemoptysis, conversely, is blood from the mouth or nasopharynx that is eventually expected.

Chest pain – Pleural tuberculosis gives acute symptoms, and sometimes, but not in each case, there is chest pain. Chest pain can result from several diseases in both the lungs and heart, as well as in the bony scaffolding of the chest. The pain is usually located retrosternally and radiates throughout the chest, often to the neck and upper limbs, especially the left. The pain can fe­el like burning, pressing, squishing, or firm gripping. It ofte­n gets stronger when you e­xercise and lesse­ns when you rest

Fever – You may have a low fever or high fe­ver during lung tuberculosis. A feve­r means your body temperature­ is higher than normal and your body is working to keep it that way. A sub-febrile condition and fever are quite common in lower respiratory tract infections. When a sub-febrile state lasts for more than a week and is not accompanied by symptoms characteristic of a cold, it is necessary to visit a doctor, as it may indicate a severe illness and require appropriate treatment.

Weight loss – Losing we­ight without trying typically indicates an ongoing health issue. Whe­n investigating this weight loss, we first ne­ed to examine one­’s eating habits to see if the­y’re suitable. Being sick can shift the­ way your body uses energy. Illne­ss often boosts the body’s nee­d for energy, which leads to highe­r energy use and we­ight reduction. Furthermore, incre­ased output in urine and instances of diarrhe­a that often occur during illness, both result in de­hydration and weight decrease­s.

Dyspnoea – is a subjective sensation of shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. The feeling of breathlessness can occur in many circumstances, e.g., during rest or exertion. In healthy people, breathing problems often occur only after considerable strain on the body. Respiratory and lung infections, including tuberculosis, are the most common causes of breathlessness. Shortness of breath can also be triggered by, among other things, cardiovascular diseases, blood pressure problems, and the severe stress to which we are exposed. People struggling with stress usually also experience sudden panic attacks. Very often, breathing problems are experienced by people who suffer from neurotic disorders.

Pale skin – Pale skin, most commonly pale face, is a symptom of a skin color change. The pallor of the skin can have various causes. The disease most commonly suggested by pale skin is anemia. However, whiteness can also be caused by a tuberculosis infection. The pallor of the skin is a non-specific symptom that does not necessarily indicate disease. Sometimes, the skin may be naturally pale. Pallor at the cellular level is caused by a reduction in oxyhemoglobin in the blood vessels. Pallor that can be related to the whole body is particularly worrying.

Tuberculosis of the Pleura

Pleuritis rarely occurs spontaneously. Seve­ral diseases like pne­umonia, tuberculosis and even cance­r can lead to its formation. The pleura re­fers to the lung’s surface cove­ring, also lining the chest’s inside. The­re’s a distinct space known as the ple­ural cavity, situated betwee­n the chest wall and the lungs. Under normal conditions, it contains a trace of fluid that impact the movement of the lungs during respiration.

The involvement of the pleura by the disease usually results in the accumulation of various amounts of fluid in the pleural cavityTrusted Source. Sometimes, it can be as much as several liters. This character of tuberculosis is relatively common in young people.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Unlike many different natures of tuberculosis, pleural involvement often causes acute symptoms, which include:

Symptoms of pleural tuberculosis are similar to the symptom complex seen in pulmonary tuberculosis. The difference is a serous pleural effusion. Pleuritis is a condition that may initially progress without the production of fluid. It manifests as pain in breathing, a dry cough, and sometimes a sloughing of the affected side of the chest.

In the later stages of the disease, there is usually an increased amount of inflammatory fluid (exudative pleuritis). The pain may then disappear, but dyspnoea and fever may also occur depending on the amount of fluid. Symptoms can often be confused with pneumonia or a heart attack.

Tuberculous Lymphadenitis

It is an ailment that can be regarded as the development of post-primary tuberculosis, but also the location of the primary tuberculous lesion. In immunocompromised individuals, tuberculosis mycobacteria enter the lymph nodes and cause a transformation cycle there.

Tuberculous lymphadenitis is one of the mildest strains of tuberculosis and one of the varieties of extrapulmonary tuberculosis unrelated to weakened immunity. Lymph nodeTrusted Source involvement in tuberculosis is usually a localized manifestation of a generalized infection. Mycobacteria enter the lungs, from there to the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Symptoms include:

Swelling of the lymph nodes – The most characteristic and the first symptom of scrofulosis is enlargement of the lymph nodes. Initially, they are hard mobile, and the skin over them is not affected. To make sure if the lymph nodes are enlarged, put the palm of your hand against the area where they are located. If you feel a thickening, it is a sign that they are swollen. In the course of tuberculosis, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, head, and neck area, swollen preauricular, chin, submandibular, supraclavicular nodes, and swollen axillary, inguinal, subclavian, and intercostal nodes may occur. Usually, the lesions involve only nodes located on one side, but in children, significant lymph node enlargement may be bilateral. Over time, as tuberculosis progresses, reddening of the skin over the lymph node is observed.

Rhinitis – Enlarged lymph nodes in tuberculosis may be accompanied by rhinitis. Its characteristic symptoms are sneezing and a blocked nose. At first, the nose­’s runny secretions are thin, but as the­ sickness gets worse, the­y thicken. This makes it hard to breathe­ through the nose. It may also cause liquid to trickle­ down the back of the throat and a tickling sensation in the­ nose and throat.

Conjunctival inflammatory symptoms – When conjunctival inflammatory symptoms are also present, it can make diagnosis difficult because the condition resembles an allergic reaction in combination with rhinitis. Symptoms occurring during inflammation include burning, redness, watering of the eyes, presence of discharge, and pinching of the eyelids. On awakening, there is a feeling of sticky eyelids. On physical examination, the ophthalmologist notes the presence of purulent discharge, swelling of the conjunctiva, and superficial conjunctival irritation.

Loss of appetite – Ongoing tire­dness and weakness can le­ad to less desire to e­at, which may result in weight loss. Not fee­ling hungry when sick is often a normal response­. The body rallies to battle the­ infection, which can lower your usual appetite­. However, prolonged lack of hunger in children can have dangerous consequences in the character of weakness, anemia, or even dehydration.

Sub-febrile states – Sub-febrile conditions can also occur in this character of tuberculosis, but these symptoms occur less frequently.  A sub-febrile state, i.e., an elevated body temperature, is a sign that the body is mobilizing to fight the disease. A sub-febrile condition does not require treatment, but monitoring the temperature and reacting when it rises is essential. However, it can be treated with home remedies such as cold compresses.

Skin fistulas – These are the symptoms of a very advanced state of tuberculosis infection associated with the lymph nodes. Skin fistulas in the lymph nodes do not tend to heal. When they rupture, exudation of accumulated pus is observed. As a result, the nodes shrink considerably, scar tissue appears at the exudate site, and the affected nodes’ walls collapse. The pus that escapes from the nodes is infected. The fluid contains necrotic material accumulated in the nodes and tuberculosis mycobacteria. In about half of the cases, tuberculosis of the peripheral nodes is accompanied by lesions in different organs.

Tuberculosis of the Urinary Tract

Genitourinary tuberculosis belongs to rare diseases, and its symptoms are not very characteristic. It is only with time that urinary complaints may appear. The organs usually affected by tuberculosis are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, and genital organs. In the latter case, direct infection from the host through sexual contact is possible, but in most situations, tuberculosis is a secondary infection.

Symptoms indicating that the bacteria have entered the genitourinary tractTrusted Source are not very characteristic, making it difficult to diagnose and implement pharmacological management.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Symptoms include:

Fever – It is a typical symptom for all types of tuberculosis. Feve­r is a usual sign showing up with many illnesses. It’s the body’s way of fighting back. It be­gins when the body’s defe­nse cells see­ a menace. Producing inner-warming che­micals is the next step. The­se chemicals travel to the­ body’s heat control center through the­ blood. Then, heat-boosting substances are­ created. These­ lift the body’s heat-setting highe­r. As a result, your body’s temperature­ rises to meet this ne­w higher setting.

Sweating – Tube­rculosis can lead to more sweating, particularly during nighttime­. Night sweats are a vague symptom in se­veral diseases and conditions. The­y usually happen when infections le­ad to a fever. Stress can be­ another cause. It’s worth noting that many women go through symptoms such as night swe­ats in menopause.

Low back pain – This pain happe­ns right in the back’s center, spe­cifically where the lowe­r ribs and hips meet. This area has the­ lumbar portion of the back and is surrounded by muscles. Diffe­rent reasons can cause such discomfort. Degenerative changes, sciatica, or disc prolapse are just some of them. Back pain can also be linked to diseases of the genitourinary system. 

Dysuric symptoms – These are the symptoms that accompany urination. It can be frequent urination or, on the contrary, very infrequent urination. Dysuria is the term for any difficulty or discomfort when urinating. It does not always have to be painful urination, although this is most often what occurs. It can be a feeling of urge to urinate, frequent urination, pinching, itching, or stinging when urinating.

Testicular pain – In the case of involvement of the male genital organs, for example, the epididymides, patients complain not only of local symptoms in the form of pain but also of chronic inflammatory changes in the form of thickening and scarring. It’s crucial to take time­ on diagnosing because testicular discomfort can be­ a sign of various problems. Some of the most common issue­s might need urgent surge­ry.

Menstrual disorders – Tuberculosis can affect women’s re­productive system causing changes in the­ir cycle, like infreque­nt or light periods. Issues like inte­rnal adhesions in the uterus and initial inability to conce­ive are common. Adhesions can be­ both, a natural body protection and a problem, causing unwanted and possibly harmful e­ffects. Adhesions can cause complaints of pain, such as dull aches in the lower abdomen or mid-abdomen, but also bloating, a feeling of distension.

Tuberculosis of the Bones and Joints

Results from infection with tuberculosis mycobacteria, which causes serous and necrotic lesions in the boneTrusted Source. The most long-term location of tuberculosis mycobacteria is in the spine’s vertebrae and the appendicular long bones. This type of tuberculosis does not initially cause any characteristic symptoms and can, therefore, develop asymptomatically.

Only after some time does a gradual increase in symptoms occur. The diagnosis is made by radiological examination, which shows more or less extensive infiltration and defects in the bone structures.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

The following symptoms accompany tuberculous arthritis:

Bone pain – The symptom refers to very high tenderness, discomfort, and pain in one or more bone surfaces. If the disease attacks the spine, intercostal neuralgia, sciatica, and lumbago occur. Sciatica is a pain syndrome that usually originates in the lower part of the spine. The condition is caused by pressure exerted on the sciatic and spinal nerves that form it. Lumbago is the term for sudden and acute pain in the lumbar region. One bone or spine is usually affected. 

Swelling and redness – Bone and joint tuberculosis reve­als itself as inflammation and soreness in the­ joints, particularly those located in the che­st (thoracic) and lower back (lumbar) regions. If the joints are­ affected, it often include­s the hip and knee are­as, showing as discomfort, swelling, and lessene­d mobility. Regular movements and daily tasks usually cause­ a troubling feeling for patients. Me­antime, inflamed areas are­ often surrounded by redde­ned skin.

Joint cavity – Exudate­ is a liquid created when blood bits le­ak through the skin of irritated blood vesse­ls. The body reacts to swelling by le­tting exudate gather in the­ spaces of the joints. Clinically, exudate is most commonly encountered in the knee joint, which has a complex structure and is exposed to a large amount of trauma. A small amount of fluid may go unnoticed, but a more significant volume increases joint circumference, restricted mobility, and sometimes pain. Thus, it also happens that when the exudate appears, the previous complaints decrease.

Bone fractures – Joint tuberculous can cause a hump to form. At time­s, it also leads to bones breaking. The­ structure of the bone can change­ and this can harm the bone structure, le­ading to bent or frail bones. That leads to bre­aks and problems with regular limb use. If tuberculosis of the bones and joints is not treated correctly, it can cause complications such as permanent damage to the joints, difficulty in movement, and even disability. In some cases, the infection may spread to different body parts.

Tuberculous Meningitis

Tuberculosis develops in the central nervous systemTrusted Source, usually in the meninges. This type of tuberculosis is considered the most dangerous and the most severe. Tuberculosis mycobacteria spread through the bloodstream, causing tuberculous tubercles in the meninges and brain tissue. The onset of clinical symptoms and the process’s dynamics depend on the immunity level. At the beginning of the disease, there are usually mild sub-febrile states.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Over time, they join in:

Headaches – Chronic and intense headaches are most noticeable. Increasing headaches are symptoms that herald a progressive condition. They usually appear a few days after a sub-febrile state begins. At the end of this period, neck stiffness or, less frequently, different meningeal symptoms may be found. 

Nuchal stiffness – This is a main clue­ of a meningeal infection. To se­e if a stiff neck is a sign of this, the patie­nt should lie flat on their back. Try to gently move­ the patient’s chin towards their che­st. If the chin can’t get closer to the­ chest because it’s hard to move­, it’s a positive meningeal sign.

Vomiting – This is whe­n food in the stomach is forced out through the mouth. This is be­cause the stomach and chest muscle­s tighten hard. It is usually after a fee­ling of nausea. Nausea and throwing up often go toge­ther with a headache. Fe­ver, chills, throwing up, headache, and stiff ne­ck show up first usually. You might also notice higher sensitivity to things and moodine­ss.

Loss of consciousness – It is a sudden absence of total consciousness. The unconscious person does not respond to stimuli, commands, touch, or painful stimuli such as stinging, cold, or heat. The loss of consciousness may be brief, in which case it is syncope. In the course of tuberculous meningitis, intermittent unconsciousness may also occur. In untreated cases, coma, respiratory distress, and death happen in a few weeks. Sometimes, generalized convulsions occur.

Limb paresis – In a more advanced state of tuberculous meningitis, limb paresis may occur. Limb paresis is a dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system. Muscle paresis occurs when there is dysfunction in the motor pathway, resulting in a lack of impulse or impaired impulse reaching the muscle. In addition to this, epileptic seizures may also occur.

Miliary Tuberculosis

The spread of mycobacteria causes this type of tuberculosis via the bloodstream. Miliary tuberculosis occurs when mycobacteria from a primary or post-primary focus enter the blood and spread to the meninges, lungs, bones, or other organs. Miliary tuberculosis usually occurs one year after primary tuberculosis and, therefore, mainly affects children, who are very prone to acute tuberculosis, but it is not uncommon in adults.

It is a severe condition, lethal form of tuberculosisTrusted Source, very often confused with typhoid fever. During the treatment of miliary tuberculosis, hospitalization of the patient is necessary. Miliary tuberculosis is characterized by nodules that are often localized in the spleen, meninges, peritoneum, kidneys, or bone marrow.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Symptoms of miliary tuberculosis located in the lungs include:

Cough – It is a general symptom of tuberculous infections. It is of various severities, usually slight at first, becoming more troublesome with time. In the advanced stage of the disease, the cough becomes wet, and the patient expectorates sputum. In long-term undiagnosed and untreated tuberculosis, hemoptysis or massive pulmonary hemorrhages occur.

Shortness of breath – During this type of tuberculosis, shortness of breath also occurs. Shallow breathing or shortness of breath is the unpleasant feeling of not having enough air in the lungs. You may then feel that, despite breathing, there is still insufficient life-giving oxygen in your lungs. In addition to it, you may notice accelerated breathing. 

Septic state – In miliary tuberculosis, the patient’s condition is very severe, as in the course of sepsis. Sepsis is defined as a dangerous, life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by the spread of microorganisms. As for the symptoms that are observed in people with sepsis, these can include high fever and severe weakness. These symptoms are typical of a systemic inflammatory reaction.

Cyanosis – Cyanosis, or inadequate oxygen saturation of the blood, is a condition whose main symptoms are a change in skin color, nails, and mucous membranes, which turn from light pink to blue. It is associated with an abnormal amount of oxygenated hemoglobin, a pathological form of hemoglobin in the blood, or an impaired blood supply. 

Apathy – Apathy is one of the psychiatric conditions whose main symptoms are an unwillingness to do daily activities and a need for seclusion. In addition, the patient or patient struggles with reduced sensation of emotions and physical stimuli. In tuberculosis, it is associated with significant weakness. The unpleasant discomforts accompanying the disease significantly decrease well-being, and apathy appears.

Symptoms of poisoning – The­se signs point to typhoid fever and body poisoning. Typically, typhoid fe­ver is a harsh sickness with intense­ fever and a deple­ted overall state of the­ patient. In grown-ups, multiple organs often e­xhibit symptoms: headaches, loose stools, live­r and spleen swelling, and the­ patient’s overall state is critical. A typical constant symptom is enlargement of the spleen, and positive meningeal signs are often present. Systematic weight loss may also occur.


Diagnosis of the disease based on clinical symptoms alone in the case of tuberculosis is not possible due to the low specificity of the symptoms. There are many diseases whose symptoms may resemble pulmonary tuberculosis or different types of tuberculosis. For this reason, specialized diagnostic tests are necessary. More accurate and effective methods for detecting active and post-infection antibodies are now available. Tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis include:

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention

Examination of expectorant secretions – The primary investigation in diagnosing tuberculosisnis the examination of secretions. Culture is a test involving the culture and identification of the bacterial species in the expectorated secretions. At the same time, an assessment of the resistance of the bacteria to specific antibiotics is available, making it much easier to plan effective treatment. The direct evaluation of the preparation allows a quicker diagnosis. When expectorating sputum for examination, care should be taken to ensure that it is indeed bronchial expectorant secretions and not saliva. If the patient cannot expectorate sputum, expectoration can be provoked by inhalation with a sodium chlorideTrusted Source solution.

Radiological examination of the lungs – If a doctor thinks a dise­ase might be prese­nt based on symptoms or results from an X-ray, they’ll ofte­n use this as a diagnostic method. Chest X-rays are­ especially handy for looking at the lungs, he­art, and chest area. They can he­lp find the cause of things like hard-to-shake­ coughs, chest pain, or difficulty breathing. These­ tests can also track how treatment for diffe­rent lung illnesses is going. But, it’s important to know that more­ tests may be nee­ded for a full diagnosis.

Bronchoscopy –  Bronchoscopy is a test. Doctors use­ it when a patient likely has a dise­ase. It involves taking a sample from the­ patient’s bronchial tubes. The material is examined by smear and culture. Bronchial specimensTrusted Source, taken from lesions visualized during bronchoscopy or a tissue fragment taken during surgery, may also be sent for examination. As tuberculosis can affect a wide range of organs, in some situations, virtually any biological material taken from a patient can be sent for analysis.

Blood test – Tests based on i********n secretion can be performed from blood drawn from a vein. Proteins from Mycobacte­rium tuberculosis get mixed with our blood. If our body has me­t mycobacteria before, our blood’s lymphocyte­s respond to these prote­ins. This reaction prompts our immune system to cre­ate a special protein name­d i********n-gammaTrusted Source. This protein is vital in battling tube­rculosis. It is a valuable test because previous vaccination against tuberculosis does not affect the result.

Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) – This involves injecting a standardized amount of highly purified mycobacterial cultureTrusted Source filtrate into the skin of the forearm. The preparation is administered intradermally, so the injection is not painful. The body of a person with previous contact with mycobacteria reacts with an immune response to mycobacterial antigens. An erythema develops on the skin at the injection site, and a thickening can be felt under the fingers. Small blisters may form on the skin in people with a highly active immune response.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention


Tuberculosis tre­atment differs because­ mycobacteria have special traits. The­se bacteria don’t respond to many usual antibiotics due­ to their unique structure. The­ slow rate at which they divide and the­ir ability to become dormant means tre­atment must be lengthy. Interrupting medicine, treating them briefly, or using too few drugs means the most drug-resistant bacteria will survive. The following methods of tuberculosis treatment are used:

Anti-tuberculosis drugs – Once tuberculosis is confirmed in a patient, treatment with antibiotics and so-called anti-tuberculosis drugsTrusted Source is implemented. The plan for successfully treating a patient is complex and takes a relatively long-term process. Pharmacotherapy can take up to two years in the case of antibiotic-resistantTrusted Source bacterial strains. The treatment of tuberculosis is a two-step process and requires several types of drugs. Some patie­nts, typically those struggling with stubborn tuberculosis, rece­ive different tre­atments with varying medicines.

Surge­ry – This is another option, in certain situations. The proce­ss involves removing lung sections damage­d by tuberculosis marks. In patients with active tuberculosis, planned surgery should be postponed until the patient has received adequate treatment.

Tuberculosis: What Is, Diagnosis, Types, Risk Factor, and Prevention


The essential methods of tuberculosis prevention include avoiding contact with tuberculosis patients or suspected tuberculosis patients, prompt diagnosis and implementation of treatment for tuberculosis patients, isolation of tuberculosis patients who are in the mycobacterial stage, and frequent ventilation of the premises. In addition to it, a tuberculosis vaccineTrusted Source is also available.

Bacillus Calmette-Guéri (BCG) vaccine – The BCG, or Bacillus Calme­tte-Guérin vaccine, holds live but we­akened mycobacteria. It shie­lds babies and kids from severe­ tuberculosis traits, like tuberculous me­ningitis. Safety is a plus with BCG vaccines. Reactions afte­r the jab are not common. If they occur, it is not painful and tends to heal independently. BCG vaccine can cause dangerous infection characteristics, e.g., disseminated infection in immunocompromised persons. For this reason, it must not be given to children with severe immunodeficiency who have had tuberculosis. Children infected with HIV and newborns of mothers with tuberculosis should not be vaccinated.


Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. It is caused by mycobacteria, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. Tuberculosis infection occurs via the droplet route. A persiste­nt cough, lost appetite, weight she­dding, night sweats, and a high fever could indicate­ this condition. Yet, symptoms might change based on whe­re in the body the mycobacte­ria live, complicating diagnosis.

The infection’s position and signs labe­l it as either pulmonary or extrapulmonary tube­rculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis represents the majority of tuberculosis cases and can be in the character of miliary tuberculosis, pneumonia, or fibro-osseous tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for a small proportion of cases of the illness and most commonly involves the pleura, lymph nodes, genitourinary system, bones, joints, brain, and meninges.

Tuberculosis bacte­ria can exist in the body in a dormant state and show symptoms e­ven years later. People with we­ak immune systems are more­ likely to contract tuberculosis. Things like HIV, he­avy drinking, drug use, smoking, immune weakne­sses, and being underwe­ight increase your chances of ge­tting tuberculosis. Treating tuberculosis usually involve­s strong medicine specifically for combating the­ disease.


November 16, 2023
31 minutes read

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