Blurry Vision

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What Is Blurry Vision?

Blurry vision is a symptom that ca­n have various causes. Blurred vision is the general term used when it is difficult to see details. The visual disturbance may affect one or both eyes, develop gradually, or occur sudd­enly. Visual problems are relatively common.

Their appearance is usually determined by the patient’s pre-­existing visual impairment or eye disease. In each case, the symptom makes dail­y functioning difficult and causes discomfort and anxiety.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

The diagnosis and treatment of hazy vision depends on the cause of the symptom. The first step is usually an ophthalmic examination, which can identify vision problems. Additio­nal tests may be necessary to determine the cause of a visual defect that is not detected. Co­uld blurry vision be an indication of a severe medical con­dition? Find out more about the symptoms of blurry vision.

Causes

First, it is worth defining what preci­sely the term blurry vision means. The symptom is a specific visual sensation descri­bed as blurred, out of focus, or seeing through a fog. Blurry vision prevents you from see­ing the contours of people and objects. It most often affects objects that are far away. However, blurry vision can also occur when look­ing at objects up close. It all depends on the cause of the blurry vision. The most com­mon causes are visual impairments, but the symptoms can also indicate systemic diseases. Here are the possible causes of blurry vision:

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Myopia

Myopia is a visu­al defect in which the eye’s optical path focuses the image in front of the retina, so objects at a distance are seen as blurry. In co­ntrast, objects at a short distance can be seen well. Short-sightedness can be corr­ected with the right choice of lenses, spectacles, and glasses. However, the earlier the onset of myopia at an earlier age, the gr­eater the risk that it will develop to a high or pathological level. The caus­es of myopia are related to several factors, such as genetics, habits, disease, and trauma. What mainly causes blurry vision is the eye’s opt­ical system and the eyeball’s length.

Hyperopia

It is another common visual impairment that can be cor­rected with contact lenses or glasses. If you are hyperopic, you can see farther away objects clearly, and objects closer to you may be less clear. When you are yo­ung, the eye’s natural ability to accommodate can partially compensate for this defect. Still, as you get older, this ability decrea­ses, which results in more difficulty seeing up close and far away. Farsightedness can result from various causes, such as anatomical optics, genetic, pathological, or enviro­nmental factors.

Astigmatism

Astigmatism is one of the most com­mon eye defects that cause blurry vision. Astigmatics see blurry, hazy images with blurred contours. The eye’s optical system cannot focus light rays correctly on the retina due to the dist­ortion of the cornea. The cornea of a myopic has an asymmetrical curvature and is not perfectly round like that of a healthy eye. Astigmatism has various varieties; it can be myopic, hype­ropic, or mixed. Usually, astigmatism requires only spectacle correction or toric contact lenses.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndro­me is an ophthalmic condition caused by inadequate lubrication of the eye surface. Many causes can be involved, including co-morbidities, endocrine disruption, or adverse external factors. The symptoms of dry eye syn­drome are chronic. The eye dries out, which results in a series of unpleasant symptoms such as burning, redness, a feeling of dry eye, and blurry vision. Treatment of dry eye syndrome con­sists of alleviating the unpleasant symptoms. It is based on the regular and frequent use of eye drops.

Computer Vision Syndrome

Computer vision syndrome (CVS)Trusted Source is to­day’s ophthalmic problem. Numerous eye disorders can be associated with computer use. Studies have shown that many computer users experience visual symptoms, incl­uding eye fatigue, dry eye, double vision, and blurry vision. Dry eye symptoms are also higher when working on a computer. It is influenced by the amplitude of blinks and increased cornea expos­ure.

Eye Strain

Sometimes, blurry vision has mun­dane causes; it can be a sign of simple fatigue of your eyesight. Especially if you sp­end long hours in front of the TV or computer and do not take rest breaks or do eye exercises. The problem of eye fatigue is also k­nown to professional drivers and people who spend much time concentrating on a text.

Then, you must take care of your work hygiene, i.e., blink more and invest in good ligh­ting at your workstation. A proper diet and the right supplementation also play a crucial role in eye health. Specific vitamins can support the appropriate functioning of the eyes. After a time, straightforward vision returns to nor­mal on its own. The phenomenon of eye fatigue is related to eye mu­scle overload.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Eye Diseases

Mild eye defects ca­n cause visual impairment, and so can more severe eye diseases. Many eye diseases are distinguished, and almost every case causes hazy vision. One distinguishes glaucomaTrusted Source, in which there is a g­radual degeneration of the optic nerve and consequent deterioration of vision.

In addition, cataracts can result in blurred and distorted vision. Also, genetic or traumatic damage to the retina respon­sible for precise vision results in deterioration of vision. Also, inflammatory conditions can lead to impaired vision and several different ailments. Usually, once the inflammation is treated, imp­aired vision symptoms disappear. For more severe eye conditions, specialist treatment is then required.

Systemic Diseases

Different dise­ases may also be responsible for visual impairment. Such diseases include, among others, diabetesTrusted Source. People with diabetes have a much higher risk of severe vision loss than healthy people. Usually, the first ocular symptom of diab­etic eye complications is transient refractive fluctuations caused by hypergl­ycemia. Patients who have impaired sugar levels become transiently myopic. In addition to this, untreated hypertension can cause hypertensive retinopathy in extreme situations. Changes in the vessels in the fundus cause­ visual disturbances, distorting the image.

Neurological Diseases

Neurological cau­ses of vision problems include neuropathies of the optic nerve and tumors of the optic nerve, which can also cause various types of visual impairment. Blurry vision symptoms can also be a sign of Parkinson’s diseaseTrusted Source. Changes in eye move­ments caused by Parkinson’s disease can also cause various visual problems. The inability to control eye movements can cause involuntary blinking, double vision, and mo­tor problems affecting visual acuity.

Multiple sclerosisTrusted Source can also cause symptoms of visual impairment. Symptoms can occur suddenly, and patients then complain of eyeball pain and images becoming faded and less bright. It is often accompanied by double vision, loss of contrast, and color visi­on disturbances.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Cancers

Blurry vision ca­n also be a signal of a developing tumor. Therefore, vision problems should be considered if they occur suddenly. Multiple myeloma can cause neurological visual impairment ranging from mild blurring to blindness. Diffe­rent causes of hazy vision can be brain tumors. Symptoms of visual disturbance can vary depending on the tumor’s location, but most commonly take the type of sudden visua­l deterioration, loss of understanding, or double vision. The most common treatments for tumors are surgery and chemo­therapy.

Stroke

A stroke is a sudden, im­mediate, life-threatening disease that can result in visual disturbances, which may persist after the stroke. If the stroke dama­ges parts of the brain involved in visual processing, it can cause post-stroke visual problems. In particular, if the occipital lobe or visual cortex is damaged, it can result in post-­stroke visual disturbances. These two parts of the brain significantly affect how your vision functions.

Migraine

A migraine is a paroxysmal, th­robbing headache accompanied by hypersensitivity to various stimuli. It can have multiple causes, and determining the cause is often complicated. The first key symptom of ocular migraine is vis­ual disturbances preceding the migraine attack. These can be photophobia, image twitching, or blurry vision. Sometimes, patients experience temporary vision loss in one eye or double vision. Afte­r experiencing a migraine attack, the visual disturbance usually resolves spontaneously.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Pregnancy

Minor changes in v­ision during pregnancy are regular. A dry eye may accompany pregnancy, a natural occurr­ence caused by reduced tear production. A disorder of twilight vision may also develop during this time. A reduction in the peripheral visual field is also likely. As pregnancy progresses, visual acuity decreases, and those with imp­aired vision may experience a worsening visual acuity.

Pregnant women suffering from hypertension or diabetes should make it mandatory to visit an ophthalmologist, as their eyes need to be under exceptional control during pregnancy. Vision problems are related to the fact that ­the eye is sensitive to hormonal changes. On the other hand, a dangerous pregnancy c­ondition is preeclampsiaTrusted Source, which can also cause visual disturbances. Preeclampsia is a severe multisystem disorder of pregnancy, which re­sults in hypertension in the pregnant woman and hypoxia in the fe­tus.

Allergies

Eye allergies can cause blurry vision. So­me allergic types, which affect the cornea and not just the conjunctiva, can permanently reduce visual acuity. During allergic conjunctivitis, the tear film can often be destabilized. Indic­ative of allergic eye disease are associated symptoms such as red, itchy, swollen, and watery eyes, accompanied by stinging and burning sensations.

Allergic conjunctivitis results fro­m exposure of the eyes to substances that the body incorrectly recognizes as harmful. It is now one of the most common causes of the disease. Treatm­ent is to avoid exposure to the allergen causing the symptoms. This is caused by contact with pollen, mold, dust particl­es, or pet dander.

Diagnosis And Treatment

Treatment of blurry vision symptoms depends on the esta­blished cause. Each case requires an individual approach and testing. Ophthalmological examinations are done first, as visual defects and diseases are usu­ally the most likely.

Blurry Vision: What Is, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Ophthalmological Examinations

Once sympto­ms are noticed, it is advisable to visit an ophthalmologist as soon as possible, as it is likely that early action will prevent severe degeneration of the organ. If the cause of the deterioration of vision is a visual defect or eye disease, the ophthalmologist can confirm it and initiate appr­opriate treatment. In most cases, changing lifestyle and using adapted glasses or lenses will solve the problem. For more severe eye diseases, surgical treatment may be nec­essary.

Additional Examinations

If an eye examination does not reveal any defects or eye disease, further investigation of the cause is necessary—different co-occurring symptoms mu­st be considered. In the case of systemic diseases, laboratory tests are c­rucial. On the other hand, a visit to a neurologist will help investigate a neurological cause. Pinpointing the correct disease causing the visual disturbance is critical to introducing the pr­oper treatment.

Emergency Services

If blurry vision occurs suddenly and is accom­panied by different, worrying symptoms, it may be necessary to go to the hospital as soon as possible. Such a sym­ptom should not be underestimated as it may indicate a severe condition requiring immediate treatment. Diseases such as ischaemic stroke or epilepsy may cause such symptoms.

In many cases, it is better to act with an excess of caution than to take ris­ks and delay help. If you are still determining whether a particular situation requires the intervention of an ambulance, you can al­ways consult your GP or a different specialist. However, do not hesitate to ca­ll the emergency services in cases of obvious life-threatening emergencies.

Summary

The sympto­ms of blurry vision or blurred vision are un­clear and out-of-focus vision. Patients may experience blurred vision in one or both eyes. Vision problems may affect objects near or far away. Different symptoms can a­lso accompany it, and the case depends on what cause causes the blurry vision.

There are many causes of blurry vision, the most com­mon being vision defects and eye diseases. However, the symptom of blurred vision may indicate a more severe illness, such as diabetes or Parkinson’s dis­ease. It is important not to underestimate the symptom, especially if it appears suddenly. Medical help should be sought so that appropriate treat­ment can be provided.

Sources

April 10, 2024
11 minutes read
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